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JNTU Kakinada - B.Tech(Chemical Engineering)- Syllabus of B.Tech III Year- I Semester


III Year B. Tech. Chemical Engineering – I Sem

JNTUK-DAP-Proposed Course Structure of B.Tech(Chemical Engineering)- Syllabus of B.Tech III Year - I Semester

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Introduction: Nature of heat flow, conduction, convection, natural and forced convection, radiation.
Heat transfer by conduction in Solids: Fourier’s law, thermal conductivity, steady state conduction in plane wall & composite walls, compound resistances in series, heat flow through a cylinder, conduction in spheres, thermal contact resistance, plane wall: variable conductivity
Unsteady state heat conduction: Equation for one-dimensional conduction, Semi-infinite solid, finite solid.

Principles of heat flow in fluids: Typical heat exchange equipment, countercurrent and parallel current flows, energy balances, rate of heat transfer, overall heat transfer coefficient, electrical analogy, critical radius of insulation, logarithmic mean temperature difference, variable overall coefficient, multi-pass exchangers, individual heat transfer coefficients, resistance form of overall coefficient, fouling factors, classification of individual heat transfer coefficients, magnitudes of heat transfer coefficients, effective coefficients for unsteady-state heat transfer.

Heat Transfer to Fluids without Phase change: Regimes of heat transfer in fluids, thermal boundary layer, heat transfer by forced convection in laminar flow, heat transfer by forced convection in turbulent flow, the transfer of heat by turbulent eddies and analogy between transfer of momentum and heat, heat transfer to liquid metals, heating and cooling of fluids in forced convection outside tubes.

Natural convection: Natural convection to air from vertical shapes and horizontal planes, effect of natural convection in laminar-flow heat transfer, free convection in enclosed spaces, mixed free & forced convection.

Heat transfer to fluids with phase change: Heat transfer from condensing vapors, heat transfer to boiling liquids.

Heat exchange equipment: General design of heat exchange equipment, heat exchangers, condensers, boilers and calendrias, extended surface equipment, heat transfer in agitated vessels, scraped surface, heat exchangers, heat transfer in packed beds, heat exchangers effectiveness (NTU method)
Evaporators: Evaporators, performance of tubular evaporators, capacity and economy, vapors recompression, Crystallization equipment

Radiation: Introduction, properties and definitions, black body radiation, real surfaces and the gray body, absorption of radiation by opaque solids, radiation between surfaces, radiation shielding, radiation to semi transparent materials, combined heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation.

1. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by McCabe & Smith, 6th Edition ,McGraw-Hill, 2001
2. Heat Transfer, Y.V.C.Rao, Universities Press (India) Pvt. Ltd., 2001

1. Process heat transfer, D.Q.Kern, Tata- McGraw-Hill, 1997
2. Heat Transfer, J.P.Holman, 9th Edition, Tata McGraw-Hill, 2008
3. Schaum’s Outline of Heat Transfer, Donald Pitts, L.E.Sissom, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill, 1998
4 A Text Book on Heat Transfer, S.P. Sukhatme, 5th Edition, Universities Press (India) Pvt. Ltd., 2005.
4. Heat Transfer: Principles and Applications, Binay Dutta, K., 1st Edition, Phi Learning, 2009.
5. Chemical Engineering-Fluid Flow, Heat Transfer and Mass Transfer-Vol.1, 6th Edition, Coulson & Richardson, Elsevier India, 2006.


Natural Products Processing: Production of pulp, paper and rayon, Manufacture of sugar, starch and starch derivatives,

Coal Chemicals: Gasification of coal and chemicals from coal.

Industrial Microbial Processes: Fermentation processes for the production of ethyl alcohol, citric acid and antibiotics,

Edible Oils: Refining of edible oils and fats, fatty acids, Soaps and detergents.

Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Precursors: Petroleum refining to produce naphtha, fuel hydrocarbons and lubricants,

Processes for the production of petrochemical precursors: ethylene, propylene, butadiene, acetylene, synthetic gas, benzene, toluene and xylene. (Cracking, Catalytic reforming and separation of products)

Plastics and Polymers: Production of thermoplastic and thermosetting resins such as polyethylene (HDPE, LDPE), polypropylene, phenolic resins and epoxy resins. Polymers and their applications in engineering practice. (PVC, PTFE, Polystyrene)

Fibre Forming and Electrometric Polymers: Synthetic fibres: polyamides, polyesters and acrylics from monomers. Processes for the production of natural and synthetic rubbers.

1. G.T. Austin, "Shreve's Chemical Process Industries", 5th Edn., McGraw Hill, New York, 1984.
2. M. Gopala Rao and Marshall Sittig, " Dryden's Outline of Chemical Technology," 2nd Edn., Affiliated East- West Press, 1973

1. S.D. Shukla and G. N. Pandey, " AText book of Chemical Technology", Vol. 2, 2nd Edition, Vikas Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., 1986.


Heat effects: Sensible heat effects, Internal energy of ideal gases: Microscopic view, Latent heats of pure substances, heat effects of industrial reactions, heat effects of mixing processes.

Standard heat of reaction, Standard heat of formation, Standard heat of combustion, temperature dependence of heat of reaction

Solution thermodynamics: Theory: Fundamental property relation, chemical potential as a criterion for phase equilibrium, partial properties, ideal gas mixtures, fugacity and fugacity coefficient for pure species, fugacity and fugacity coefficient for species in solutions, generalized correlations for Fugacity coefficient, The ideal solutions, excess properties.

Solution thermodynamics: applications: the liquid phase properties from VLE data, models for the excess Gibbs energy, property changes of mixing

VLE at low to moderate pressures: The nature of equilibrium, the phase rule, Duhems theorem, VLE:Qualitative behavior, the gamma /Phi formulation of VLE, Dew point and bubble point calculations, flash calculations, solute (1)/solvent (2) systems

Thermodynamic properties and VLE from equations of state: properties of fluids from the virial equations of state, properties of fluids from cubic equations of state, fluid properties from correlations of the Pitzer type, VLE from cubic equations of state

Topics in phase equilibria: Equilibrium and stability, liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE), vapor- liquid–liquid equilibrium (VLLE), solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE), solid vapor equilibrium (SVE), equilibrium absorption of gases on solids

Chemical reaction equilibria: The reaction coordinate, application equilibrium criterion to chemical reactions, the standard Gibb’s energy change and the equilibrium constant, effect of temperature on equilibrium constants, relation of equilibrium constants to composition, equilibrium conversion for single reactions, Phase rule and Duhem’s theorem for reacting systems.

1. Introduction to chemical engineering thermodynamics by J.M. Smith, H.C. Van Ness and M.M. Abbott, 7th ed. McGraw Hill, 2005.
2. Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, Rao Y.V.C., Universities Press (India) Pvt. Ltd.,1997.

1. Chemical and Process Thermodynamics, BG Kyle, 3rd Edition, Phi Learning, 2008.
2. Introductory Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics, J. Richard Elliott, Carl T. Lira,
2nd Edition, Prentice Hall, 2012.
3. Chemical, Biochemical And Engineering Thermodynamics, Stanley I Sandler, 4th Edition, Wiley India Pvt Ltd, 2006.
4. Molecular Thermodynamics In Fluid Phase Equilibria, J.M. Prausnitz, R.N. Lichtenthaler, E.G.de Azvedo, 3rd Edition, Prentice-Hall, 1998.
5. Engineering and Chemical Thermodynamics, Milo D. Koretsky, Wiley India Pvt Ltd, 2009
6. Thermodynamics: Applications In Chemical Engineering And The Petroleum Industry, J.Vidal, Editions Technip, 2003.


Overview of chemical reaction engineering: classification of reactions, variables affecting the rate of reaction definition of reaction rate. Kinetics of homogenous reactions- concentration dependent term of rate equation, Temperature dependent term of rate equation, searching for a mechanism, predictability of reaction rate from theory.

Interpretation of batch reactor data: constant volume batch reactor:- Analysis of total pressure data obtained in a constant-volume system, the conversion, Integral method of analysis of data– general procedure, irreversible unimolecular type first order reactions, irreversible bimolecular type second order reactions, irreversible trimolecular type third order reactions, empirical reactions of nth order, zero-order reactions, overall order of irreversible reactions from the half-life, fractional life method, irreversible reactions in parallel, homogenous catalyzed reactions, autocatalytic reactions, irreversible reactions in series.

Constant volume batch reactor– first order reversible reactions, second order reversible reactions, reversible reactions in general, reactions of shifting order, Differential method of analysis of data. Varying volume batch reactor: differential method of analysis, integral method of analysis, zero order, first order, second order, nth order reactions, temperature and reaction rate, the search for a rate equation.

Introduction to reactor design: general discussion, symbols and relationship between CA and XA; Ideal reactors for a single reaction- Ideal batch reactor, Steady-state mixed flow reactor, Steady-state plug reactors.

Design for single reactions: Size comparison of single reactors, Multiple- reactor systems, Recycle reactor, Autocatalytic reactions.

Design for parallel reactions: introduction to multiple reactions, qualitative discussion about product distribution, quantitative treatment of product distribution and of reactor size.

Irreversible first order reactions in series, quantitative discussion about product distribution, quantitative treatment, plug flow or batch reactor, quantitative treatment, mixed flow reactor, first-order followed by zero-order reaction, zero order followed by first order reaction.

Temperature and Pressure effects: single reactions- heats of reaction from thermodynamics, heats of reaction and temperature, equilibrium constants from thermodynamics, equilibrium conversion, general graphical design procedure, optimum temperature progression, heat effects, adiabatic operations, non adiabatic operations, comments and extensions. Exothermic reactions in mixed flow reactors-A special problem, multiple reactions.

1. Chemical Reaction Engineering, Octave Levenspiel, 3rd Ed. John Wiley & Sons, 1999.

1. Elements of Chemical Reaction Engineering, H.S. Fogler, 2nd Edition. PHI, 1992.
2. Chemical Engineering Kinetics , J.M.Smith, 3rd Edition. McGraw- Hill, 1981.
3. Elementary Chemical Reactor Analysis, Aris. R., Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1969.
4. Modeling of Chemical Kinetics and Reactor Design, Coker, A.K., Gulf Professional Publishing, 2001.
5. Fundamentals of Chemical Reaction Engineering, Davis, M.E., and R.J. Davis, McGraw-Hill, 2002.
6. Chemical Reactor Theory: An Introduction, Denbigh K.G., and J.C.R. Turner, 3rd Ed., Cambridge University Press, 1984.
7. Chemical Reactor Analysis and Design, Froment, G.B., and K.B. Bischoff, 2nd Ed., Wiley, 1990.
8. An Introduction to Chemical Engineering Kinetics and Reactor Design, C.G. Hill Jr., John Wiley & Sons, 1977.
9. Chemical Reaction Engineering: A First Course, Metcalfe, I.S., Oxford University Press, 1997.
10. Chemical Reaction Engineering and Kinetics, Missen, R.W., C.A.Mims and B.A. Saville, Wiley, Toronto, 1999.
11. The Engineering of Chemical Reactions, Schmidt, L.D., Oxford University Press, New York 1998.


Introduction to Mass Transfer Operations: Classification of the Mass-Transfer Operations, Choice of Separation Method, Methods of Conducting the Mass-Transfer Operations, Design Principles, Unit Systems.
Molecular Diffusion In Fluids: Molecular Diffusion, Equation of Continuity, binary solutions, Steady State Molecular Diffusion in Fluids at Rest and in Laminar Flow, estimation of diffusivity of gases and liquids, Momentum and Heat Transfer in Laminar flow.

Diffusion: Diffusion in Solids, Fick’s Diffusion, Unsteady State Diffusion, Types of Solid Diffusion, diffusion through polymers, diffusion through crystalline solids, Diffusion through porous solids & hydrodynamic flow of gases.

Mass Transfer Coefficients: Mass Transfer Coefficients, Mass Transfer Coefficients in Laminar Flow (Explanation of equations only and no derivation), Mass Transfer Coefficients in Turbulent Flow, eddy diffusion, Film Theory, Penetration theory, Surface-renewal Theory, Combination Film-Surface-renewal theory, Surface-Stretch Theory, Mass, Heat and Momentum Transfer Analogies, Turbulent Flow in Circular Pipes. Mass transfer data for simple situations.

Inter Phase Mass Transfer: Concept of Equilibrium, Diffusion between Phases, Material Balances in steady state co-current and counter current stage processes, Stages, Cascades, Kremser – Brown equation.

Distillation: Fields of applications, VLE for miscible liquids, immiscible liquids, steam distillation, Positive and negative deviations from ideality, enthalpy-concentration diagrams, flash vaporization and differential distillation for binary and multi component mixtures.
Continuous rectification-binary systems, multistage tray towers–method of McCabe and Thiele, enriching section, exhausting section, feed introduction, total reflux, minimum and optimum reflux ratios, use of steam, condensers, partial condensers, cold reflux, multiple feeds, tray efficiencies, continuous-contact equipment (packed towers)

Multistage tray towers- Ponchon and Savarit method, the enriching and stripping sections, feed tray location, total reflux, minimum and optimum reflux ratios, reboilers, use of open steam, condenser and reflux accumulators, azeotropic distillation, extractive distillation, comparison of azeotropic and extractive distillation.

Absorption and Stripping: Absorption equilibrium, ideal and non ideal solutions selection of a solvent for absorption, one component transferred: material balances. Determination of number of plates (graphical), absorption Factor, estimation of number of plates by Kremser Brown equation. Continuous contact equipment: HETP &HTU concepts, absorption of one component, determination of number of transfer units and height of the continuous absorber, overall coefficients and transfer units, dilute solutions, overall height of transfer units.

Equipment For Gas-Liquid Operations: Gas dispersed, sparged vessels (bubble columns), mechanical agitated equipments(brief description),tray towers, general characteristics, sieve tray design for absorption and distillation (qualitative treatment), different types of tray efficiencies, liquid dispersed venturi scrubbers, wetted-wall towers, packed towers, counter current flow of liquid & gas through packing, mass transfer coefficients for packed towers, end effects and axial mixing- tray towesr vs packed towers.

1. Mass transfer Operations, R.E. Treybal, 3rd Edition., Mc Graw Hill, 1980.
2. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering, W.L.McCabe, J.C.Smith & Peter Harriott, McGraw- Hill, 6th Edition, 2001.

1. Coulson and Richardson’s Chemical engineering, Vol 1,Backhurst, J.R., Harker, J.H., Richardson, J.F., and Coulson, J.M., Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999.
2. Coulson and Richardson’s Chemical engineering, Vol 2, Richardson, J.F. & Harker,J.H. with Backhurst, J.R., Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002.
3. Principles of Mass Transfer and Separation Processes, Binay K. Datta, PHI Learning Private Ltd., 2009.
4. Diffusion: Mass Transfer in Fluid Systems, Cussler, E.L., Cambridge Univ. Press, 1984.
5. Design of Equilibrium Stage Processes, B.D.Smith, McGraw-Hill, 1963.
6. Staged Cascades In Chemical Processing, P.L.T.Brian, Prentice-Hall, 1972.
7. Equilibrium Staged Separations, Phillip C.Wankat, Prentice-Hall PTR, 1988.
8. Equilibrium-Stage Separation Operations in Chemical Engineering, E.J.Henley and J.D.Seader, John Wiley & Sons, 1981.
9. Transport Processes and Unit Operations by Christie J. Geankoplis, 4th Edition, PHI,2009.
10. Separation Processes, C.J. King, 2nd Edition, McGraw- Hill, 1980.


Elements of instruments, static and dynamic characteristics, basic concepts of response of first order type instruments, mercury in glass thermometer, bimetallic thermometer, pressure spring thermometer, static accuracy and response of thermometry.

Thermo electricity: Industrial thermocouples, thermo couple wires, thermo couple wells and response of thermo couples.

Thermal coefficient of resistance, industrial resistance, thermometer bulbs and circuits, radiation receiving elements, radiation photo electric and optical pyrometers.

Composition analysis, spectroscopic analysis by absorption, emission, mass and color measurement spectrometers, gas analysis by thermal conductivity, analysis of moisture, refractometer.

Pressure, vacuum and head: liquid column manometers, measuring elements for gauge pressure and vacuum, indicating elements for pressure gauges, measurement of absolute pressure, measuring pressure in corrosive liquids, static accuracy and response of pressure gauges.

Head, density and specific gravity, direct measurement of liquid level, pressure measurement in open vessels, level measurements in pressure vessels, measurement of interface level, density measurement, and level of dry materials.

Head flow meters, area flow meters, open channel meters, viscosity meters, quantity meters, flow of dry materials, viscosity measurements.

Recording instruments, indicating and signaling instruments, transmission of instrument readings, controls center, instrumentation diagram, process analysis-digital instrumentation.

1. Industrial instrumentation by Donald P.Eckman, CBS, 2004.

1. Principles of Industrial Instrumentation by Patranabis, 2nd Edition, Tata Mc Graw-Hill, 1996.
2. Process Control and instrumentation technology, Curtis D. Johnson, 3rd Edition, Prentice Hall, 1988.
3. Process Instrumentation Applications Manual, Bob Connell, 2nd Edition, Mc Graw-Hill, 1995.


1. Determination of total thermal resistance and thermal conductivity of composite wall.

2. Determination of thermal conductivity of a metal rod.

3. Determination of natural convective heat transfer coefficient for a vertical tube.

4. Determination of critical heat flux point for pool boiling of water.

5. Determination of forced convective heat transfer coefficient for air flowing through a pipe

6. Determination of overall heat transfer coefficient in double pipe heat exchanger.

7. Study of the temperature distribution along the length of a pin-fin under natural and forced convection conditions

8. Estimation of un-steady state film heat transfer coefficient between the medium in which the body is cooled.

9. Determination of Stefan – Boltzmann constant.

10. Determination of emissivity of a given plate at various temperatures.


1. Estimation of diffusivity coefficients
(a) vapors (b) solids
2. Distillation, a) Steam distillation b) Differential distillation

3. HETP evaluation in Packed Towers

4. Vapor Liquid Equilibria

5. Hydrodynamics of Spray column

6. Continuous and Batch Drying

7. Evaluation of Mass transfer coefficients
(a) Surface Evaporation (b) Wetted wall column

8. (a) Liquid- Liquid Equilibria
(b) Ternary Liquid Equilibria (binodal curve)

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