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EE2402 Protection & Switchgear Scanned Lecture Notes (All Units) - Sree Kala Edition
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Anna University , Chennai
Department of B.E-Electrical and Electronics Engg
Seventh Semester
EE2402 Protection & Switchgear
Scanned Lecture Notes - All Units
(Regulation 2008)


UNIT-1

INTRODUCTION
  • Qualities of protective relaying
  • Reliability
  • Selectivity and discrimination
  • Speed and time
  • Sensitivity
  • Stability
  • Adequateness
  • Simplicity& economy
  • Protective zone
  • Concept of backup relaying
  • Types of relaying
  • PROTECTIVE AGAINST OVERVOLTAGE
  • Lighting
  • Types of lighting stroke
  • Protective of electrical apparatus against travelling waves
  • Operation of surge diverter\lighting arrester
  • Classification of surge arrestor
  • Coefficient of earthing
  • Surge absorber
  • Solid grounding
  • Resistance earthing
  • Advantage
  • Disadvantage
  • Reactance earthing
  • Advantage
  • Disadvantage
  • Resonant grounding
  • Earthing transformer
  • Symmetrical fault analysis
  • Methods
  • Insulation co-ordination
  • Unsymmetrical fault analysis
  • Single line to ground fault
  • Fault current
  • Fault impedance
  • Line to line fault
UNIT-2
  • Operating principles and relay characteristics
  • Relay
  • Trip circuit operation
  • Tripping schemes
  • Relay with make type contact
  • Relay with break type contact
  • Electro magnet attraction relay
  • Solenoid and plunger relay
  • Balanced beam type relay
  • Electromagnetic moving coil relay
  • Calculation of relay operating time
  • Directional power relay
  • Directional induction type
  • Differential relays
  • Frequency relay
  • Impedance relay
  • Torque equation
  • Advantages
  • Disadvantages
  • Directional impedance relay
  • Reactance Relay
  • Mho\admittance relay
  • Static relay
UNIT-3

TRANSFORMER PROTECTION
  • Common transformer fault
  • Protective schemes for transformer protection
  • 1 .Buchholz device
  • 2 .Earth fault relay
  • 3 .Over current relay
  • 4 .Differential relay
  • 5 .Harmonic restraint and harmonic blocking
  • Drawbacks of differential protection 
  • Protection of generators
  • Classification
  • Star connected alternator protection
  • Delta connected alternated protection
  • Stator interturn fault protection
  • Restricted earth fault protection
  • Unrestricted earth fault protection
  • Unbalanced protection of generators
  • Overload protection of stators
  • Negative sequence protection relay
  • Protection against abnormal running condition
  • Motor protection requirements
  • Comprehensive motor protection relay
  • Protection circuit for induction motor
  • Bus bar protection
  • Advantage
  • Disadvantage
  • Instrument transformer
  • Types
  • Current transformer
  • Application
  • Design features
  • Potential transformer
  • Types
  • Application
  • Problems
UNIT-4

THEORY OF CIRCUIT INTERRRUPTION
  • Field emission
  • Thermionic emission
  • Maintanence of arc
  • Electric arc
  • Arc extinction
  • Low resistance or zero point extinction
  • DC circuit breaking
  • AC circuit breaking
  • Derivation of rate of rise of TRV
  • Factors
  • Current chopping
  • Problems
UNIT-5

CIRCUIT BREAKERS
  • Classification
  • Advantages 
  • Disadvantages
  • Features
  • Limitation
  • Application
  • Circuit breaker ratings
  • Testing of circuit breaking
  • Comparison of circuit breakers
  • Problems
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