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Power System Operation and Control (EE2401) Scanned Lecture Notes - RAJ Edition
#1


   
Anna University , Chennai
Department of B.E-Electrical and Electronics Engg
Seventh Semester
EE2401 Power System Operation and Control
Scanned Lecture Notes - Unit 1 , 2 ,3 and 4
(Regulation 2008)


Content :
POWER SYSTEM OPERATION AND CONTROL

UNIT-1

Introduction
Load
Types of load
1. Residential load
2. Commercial load
3. Industrial load
4. Agriculture load
5. Municipal load
6. Traditional load
Power balanced equation
Load curve
Daily load curve
Monthly load curve
Yearly load curve
Load duration curve
Significance of load curve
Load factor
Factors
1. Connected load
2. Maximum demand
3. Demand factor
4. Average load
Factors to improve the diversity factor
Types of reverse requirement
1. Installed reserve
2. Spinning reserve
3. Cold reserve
4. Hot reserve
Load forecasting
Classification of load forecasting
Load forecast technique
1. Extra polation
2. Correlation
3. Combination of both 1 and 2
Fundamental requirement of power system operation
System voltage control
Security control
Load categories
1. Static characteristic
2. Dynamic characteristic
Composite load
Induction motor load
Need of voltage regulation
Advantage of inter connection

UNIT-2
REAL POWER FREQUENCY CONTROL
Load frequency control
Primary control
Secondary control
Speed control mechanism
Model of speed governor
Speed governor modelling
1. Steam turbine
2. Hydraulic turbine
Load sharing between two alternators
Problems
Requirements for parallel operation
Condition for proper synchronizing
Steady state analysis
Dynamic analysis
Integral control of single area system
Polynomial equation
Advantages
Dis advantages
Multi area system
Two area system
Speed governor modelling
Different control mode
Problems
Control area
Effect of speed changes on speed governing system

UNIT-3
REACTIVE POWER CONTROL
Excitation
Brush AVR generation
Brushless AVR  generation
Modelling of AVR
Series compensation
Feedback compensation
Effect of generator loading
Method of increasing response
Location of voltages control equipments
Calculation of sending and receiving end voltages
Cables
Transmission line
Analysis of absorbed generated by the transmission line
Reactive power balance and its effect on system voltages
Series capacitor
Draw back of series capacitor
Advantages
Application
Constraints in unit capacity
Spinning reservers
Reserve capacity
Reserve generating capacity
Thermal unit constraint
Unit commitment solution method
Area control error
Forward dynamic programming approach method

UNIT-4
ECONOMIC DISPATCH
Problems
Based load method
Based point method
Inequlity constraints
a. Generators constraints
b. Voltage constraints
c. Running space capacity constraints
d. Transfer tap setting
e. Transmission line constraints
f. Network security
g. Input curve of the generating unit
h. Heat rate curve
Increment heat rate
Generating unit efficiency
Incremental efficiency
Full energy input
Cost function
Economic operation
Equality constraints
Inequality constraints
Co-ordination equation without loss
Economic dispatch
Analytical solution
Problems
Optimum allocation of generation

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