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EE2028 Power Quality Lecture Notes (All Units) - Ganesh And Kanirajan Edition

Anna University , Chennai
Department of B.E-Electrical and Electronics Engg
Eighth Semester
EE2028 Power Quality
Lecture Notes (All Units) - Ganesh And Kanirajan Edition
(Regulation 2008)

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Content :

Power quality problem
Causes of power quality problem
Terms and definitions
1. Over voltages
2. Under voltages
3. Sustained interruption
4. Sags
5. Swells
6. Wave form distortion
7. DC offset
8. Harmonics
Total harmonic distortion (THD)
Computer business equipment manufacturers association (CBEMA) curve
i. CBEMA curve
ii. ITI curve
iii. CBEMA and ITI curve
i. Impulse transient
ii. Oscillatory transient


Sources of sag and interruption
Estimating voltage sag performance
1. Area of vulnerability
2. Equipment sensitivity to voltage sag
3. Transmission system sag performance evaluation
4. Utility distribution system sag performance evaluation
Faults on the parallel feeders
Faults on the same feeders
Fundamental principle of protection
Solution at the end user level
1. Active series compensators
2. Static transfer switches and fast transfer switches
Motor starting sags
1. Motor starting method
i. Full voltages starting
ii. Auto transformer starter
iii. Resistance and reactance starters
iv. Part windings starters
v. Delta-wye starters
2. Estimating the sag severity during full voltage starting


Source of over voltages
Capacitor switching
Magnification of capacitor-switching transient
Common indicators of ferroresonance are
i. Audible noise
ii. Overheating
iii. High over voltages and surge arrester failure
iv. Flicker
Principle of over voltage protection
Devices for over voltages protection
1. Surge arresters and transient voltage surge suppressors
2. Isolation transformers
3. Low-pass filters
4. Low-impedance power conditioners
5. Utility surge arresters
Gapped silicon carbide utility surge arresters
Gapless MOV utility surge arresters
Gapped MOV utility surge arresters
Utility system lighting protection
Utilities to use to decrease the impact of lighting
1. Shielding
2. Line arresters
3. Low-side surges
Protecting the transformers
Impact on load circuits
4. Cable protection
Open point arresters
Next to last transformer
 Under oil arresters
Elbow arresters
Lower discharge arresters
Fluid injection
5. Scout arresters scheme
Computer tools for transient analysis
1. Transient program(EMTP)
PSCAD introduction to PSCAD
Models present in PSCAD
Transient analysis using PSCAD
1. Use of trapezoidal rule of integration
2. 2. Formulation of state equation
Advantages of PSCAD
Simulation in D-STATCOM
Simulation results
Modelling details
Flow chart for transient program


Fundamentals of harmonics
Harmonic distortion
Voltage versus current distortion
Harmonic indices
Total harmonic distortion (THD)
Total demand distortion (TDD)
Harmonic sources from commercial loads
1. Single phase power supply
2. Fluorescent lighting
3. Adjustable-speed drives for HVAC and elevators
Harmonic sources from industrial load
1. Three phase power converters
2. Arching devices
3. Saturable devices
Locating harmonic sources
System response characteristics
1. System impedance
2. Capacitor impedance
3. Parallel impedance
4. Series resonance
5. Effects of resistance and resistive load
Harmonic distortion evaluations
1. Concept of point of common coupling
2. Harmonic evaluation on the utility system
Voltage limit evaluation procedure
3. Harmonic evaluation for end users facilities
Current limit evaluation procedure
Devices for controlling harmonic distortion
1. In-line reactor or choke
2.  Zig-zag transformer
3. Passive filters
Shunt passive filters
Zig-zag transformer connection
Series passive filters
Low-pass broadband filters
4. Active filters
Standards on harmonics


Monitoring consideration
Power quality measurement equipment
Types of instruction
Disturbance analyzers
Spectrum analyzers and harmonic analyzers
1. Simple meters
2. General-purpose spectrum analyzers
3. Special-purpose power system harmonic analyzers
Harmonic disturbance and harmonic analyzers
Flicker meters
Application of intelligent system
Basic design of an expert system for monitoring application
Example application for expert system
Radial fault locator module
Capacitor switching direction module
Capacitor-switching operation inspection module
Lighting correlation module
Future application
1. Industrial power quality monitoring application
2. Power system performance assessment and benchmarking
3. Application for system maintenance, operation and reliability
Power quality monitoring and the internet

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