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Fluid Mechanics (Civil) Scanned Lecture Notes - Aarthi Edition
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Fluid Mechanics (Civil) Full Hand Written Lecture Notes from Reputed Institutions and Faculties. Useful for Civil Engineers , Specially for Candidates Appearing for GATE Exams , IES Exams and PSUS Exams.

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Content :
FLUID MECHANICS

Mechanics
Fluid
In solid
In liquid

Basic fluid property
1. Density
2. Specific weight
3. Specific gravity
4. Relative density
5. Compressibility

Gases
1. Isothermal compressibility of gas
2. Adiabatic compressibility of gas

VISCOSITY
Basic reason of viscosity
Newton’s law of viscosity
Dynamic viscosity
Kinematic viscosity
Lineralization of newton’s law of viscosity

Rheology
1. Ideal fluid
2. Newton’s fluid
3. Non-newton’s fluid
4. Ideal –bingham plastic fluid

Basic reason of surface tension
Formation of drops
Formation of bubble
Formation of jet
Concept of surface energy
Wetting and non-weeing fluid
Capillarity
Capillary rise
ANNULAR CAPILLARY
PRESSURE AND PRESSURE MEASUREMENT
Unit of pressure
Different type of pressure
Conventional pressure measurement
Modern pressure measurement
FLUID STATICS
Hydrostatic force in a curved surface
Hydrostatic forces on bodies
Principle of floatation
Concept of apparent weight
Equilibrium and types of equilibrium
Stability of submerged body
Stability of floating body
Concept of accelerated flow vessels

KINEMATICS OF FLUID FLOW
1. Lagrangian approach
2. Eulerian approach

Different types of flow in fluid flow
Conservation of mass
Acceleration of fluid particles
Stream function
Dynamics of fluid flow

Assumption
1. Flow is laminar
2. Flow is irrotational
3. Flow is invicid
4. Flow is steady
5. Flow is incompressible

Flow measurement devices
LAMINAR FLOW THROUGH PIPES
Mean value
Friction factor in laminar flow
MOMENTUM CORRECTION FACTOR
PIPE FLOW
Major energy loss in pipe flow
Minor energy loss in pipe flow
TOTAL ENERGY LINE
Hydraulic gradient line

Different connection in the pipe
1. Series connection
2. Parallel connection 

Laminar flow through pipes
Mean velocity
Shear stress distribution
Internal flow
Fraction factor in laminar flow
Theory of pipe junction
Hardy-cross method
Hydraulic power transmission through pipe
Water hammer

Time period of pressure wall
1. Gradual closing of valve in rigid
2. Sudden closer of valve

VORTEX FLOWS
1. Free vertex flow
2. Forced vertex flow

Volume of paraboloid
Conservation of volume
DIMENTIONAL ANALYSIS
Rayleigh’s method
Different types of force in fluid flow system
Modelling and similitude in studies
Concept of distorted model
STREAM LINE BODIES
BLUFF BODIES
co-efficient of drag and co-efficient of lift
Flow over cylinder
Magnos effect
BOUNDARY LAYER THEORY
Development of flow over flat plate
Boundary layer thickness
Different types of losses
Local and avg skin friction coefficient
Boundary layer flow separation and its control
TURBULENT FLOW THROUGH PIPES
FLUID
Classification of hydraulic machines
Turbines
Runner
Pump

Impact of jet
1. Flat
2. Inclined surface
3. Curved surface
4. Curved surface attack at the tip

Relative velocity
Force
Tangential flow runners
Efficiency
Impact of jet on runner
CONCEPT OF RELATIVE VELOCITY ON RUNNERS
Radial flow runner
Inward radial flow runner

HYDRO – ELECTRIC POWER PLANT
Installation
1. Multi purpose plants
2. Tidal power plants

Location
Availability of water
1. High head and low discharge
2. Medium head and medium discharge

Essential components of hydro-electric power plant
1. Storage reservoir
2. Dam and its control works
3. Waterways and its control work
4. Turbines

Different types of head
1. Gross head
2. Net head

Different types of efficiency
1. Volumetric efficiency
2. Hydraulic efficiency
3. Mechanical efficiency
4. Overall efficiency

IMPULSE TURBINE
Different arrangments
1. Shape of vane
2. No of vanes
3. Width of vane
4. Height of vane
Casting
Breaking jets
IMPULSE TURBINE
REACTION TURBINE

Main components
1. Casting
2. Stator
3. Runner
4. Draft tube

Degree of reaction
Contribution of francis
Radial flow reaction turbine
Axial flow reaction turbine
Draft tube
Different types of draft tube
Specific speed
Classification

Unit quantities
1. Unit speed
2. Unit discharge
3. Unit power

Performance characteristics curves

Model prototype testing
1. Velocity
2. Discharge
3. Power

Classification of turbines
PUMPS
Centrifugal pump

Main components
1. Casting
2. Impeller

Different types of head
1. Static head
2. Manometric head
3. Gross head

Minimum speed of centrifugal pump
Pressure rise on impeller blades
Effect of vane angle

Multi staging of pump
1. Series
2. Parallel

Performance characteristics curves
Thoma’s cavitation factor
Priming of centrifugal pump
Reciprocating pump
OPEN CHANNEL FLOW
Classification of flow
Types of flow
Possible combination of flow
NON-UNIFORM FLOW
Energy equation
Momentum equation
UNIFORM FLOW IN A CHANNEL
Trapezoidal channel
SPECIFIC ENERGY
Effect of discharge on specific energy curve
Features of critical flow

CHANNEL TRANSITION
1. Horizontal contraction
2. Vertical comtraction

GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW
Integration of varied flow equation
Classification of flow profile
Control section
Hydraulic jump
Classification of jump
Rapidly varied unsteady flow
Notches and weirs

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