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FLUID MECHANICS

Mechanics

Fluid

In solid

In liquid

Basic fluid property

1. Density

2. Specific weight

3. Specific gravity

4. Relative density

5. Compressibility

Gases

1. Isothermal compressibility of gas

2. Adiabatic compressibility of gas

VISCOSITY

Basic reason of viscosity

Newton’s law of viscosity

Dynamic viscosity

Kinematic viscosity

Lineralization of newton’s law of viscosity

Rheology

1. Ideal fluid

2. Newton’s fluid

3. Non-newton’s fluid

4. Ideal –bingham plastic fluid

Basic reason of surface tension

Formation of drops

Formation of bubble

Formation of jet

Concept of surface energy

Wetting and non-weeing fluid

Capillarity

Capillary rise

ANNULAR CAPILLARY

PRESSURE AND PRESSURE MEASUREMENT

Unit of pressure

Different type of pressure

Conventional pressure measurement

Modern pressure measurement

FLUID STATICS

Hydrostatic force in a curved surface

Hydrostatic forces on bodies

Principle of floatation

Concept of apparent weight

Equilibrium and types of equilibrium

Stability of submerged body

Stability of floating body

Concept of accelerated flow vessels

KINEMATICS OF FLUID FLOW

1. Lagrangian approach

2. Eulerian approach

Different types of flow in fluid flow

Conservation of mass

Acceleration of fluid particles

Stream function

Dynamics of fluid flow

Assumption

1. Flow is laminar

2. Flow is irrotational

3. Flow is invicid

4. Flow is steady

5. Flow is incompressible

Flow measurement devices

LAMINAR FLOW THROUGH PIPES

Mean value

Friction factor in laminar flow

MOMENTUM CORRECTION FACTOR

PIPE FLOW

Major energy loss in pipe flow

Minor energy loss in pipe flow

TOTAL ENERGY LINE

Hydraulic gradient line

Different connection in the pipe

1. Series connection

2. Parallel connection

Laminar flow through pipes

Mean velocity

Shear stress distribution

Internal flow

Fraction factor in laminar flow

Theory of pipe junction

Hardy-cross method

Hydraulic power transmission through pipe

Water hammer

Time period of pressure wall

1. Gradual closing of valve in rigid

2. Sudden closer of valve

VORTEX FLOWS

1. Free vertex flow

2. Forced vertex flow

Volume of paraboloid

Conservation of volume

DIMENTIONAL ANALYSIS

Rayleigh’s method

Different types of force in fluid flow system

Modelling and similitude in studies

Concept of distorted model

STREAM LINE BODIES

BLUFF BODIES

co-efficient of drag and co-efficient of lift

Flow over cylinder

Magnos effect

BOUNDARY LAYER THEORY

Development of flow over flat plate

Boundary layer thickness

Different types of losses

Local and avg skin friction coefficient

Boundary layer flow separation and its control

TURBULENT FLOW THROUGH PIPES

FLUID

Classification of hydraulic machines

Turbines

Runner

Pump

Impact of jet

1. Flat

2. Inclined surface

3. Curved surface

4. Curved surface attack at the tip

Relative velocity

Force

Tangential flow runners

Efficiency

Impact of jet on runner

CONCEPT OF RELATIVE VELOCITY ON RUNNERS

Radial flow runner

Inward radial flow runner

HYDRO – ELECTRIC POWER PLANT

Installation

1. Multi purpose plants

2. Tidal power plants

Location

Availability of water

1. High head and low discharge

2. Medium head and medium discharge

Essential components of hydro-electric power plant

1. Storage reservoir

2. Dam and its control works

3. Waterways and its control work

4. Turbines

Different types of head

1. Gross head

2. Net head

Different types of efficiency

1. Volumetric efficiency

2. Hydraulic efficiency

3. Mechanical efficiency

4. Overall efficiency

IMPULSE TURBINE

Different arrangments

1. Shape of vane

2. No of vanes

3. Width of vane

4. Height of vane

Casting

Breaking jets

IMPULSE TURBINE

REACTION TURBINE

Main components

1. Casting

2. Stator

3. Runner

4. Draft tube

Degree of reaction

Contribution of francis

Radial flow reaction turbine

Axial flow reaction turbine

Draft tube

Different types of draft tube

Specific speed

Classification

Unit quantities

1. Unit speed

2. Unit discharge

3. Unit power

Performance characteristics curves

Model prototype testing

1. Velocity

2. Discharge

3. Power

Classification of turbines

PUMPS

Centrifugal pump

Main components

1. Casting

2. Impeller

Different types of head

1. Static head

2. Manometric head

3. Gross head

Minimum speed of centrifugal pump

Pressure rise on impeller blades

Effect of vane angle

Multi staging of pump

1. Series

2. Parallel

Performance characteristics curves

Thoma’s cavitation factor

Priming of centrifugal pump

Reciprocating pump

OPEN CHANNEL FLOW

Classification of flow

Types of flow

Possible combination of flow

NON-UNIFORM FLOW

Energy equation

Momentum equation

UNIFORM FLOW IN A CHANNEL

Trapezoidal channel

SPECIFIC ENERGY

Effect of discharge on specific energy curve

Features of critical flow

CHANNEL TRANSITION

1. Horizontal contraction

2. Vertical comtraction

GRADUALLY VARIED FLOW

Integration of varied flow equation

Classification of flow profile

Control section

Hydraulic jump

Classification of jump

Rapidly varied unsteady flow

Notches and weirs

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