23-01-2015, 06:30 PM

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Introduction

Types of surveying

1. Geodetic survey

2. Plane survey

Principle of surveying

Scale

Types of scale

Plane scale

Verniear scale

1. Direct verniear

2. Indirect verniear

Least count

Shrunk scale

Ground length

Shrunk scale

Shrinkage factor

TAPE CORRECTION

1. Correction due to standardization

2. Correction due to slope

3. Correction due to alignment

4. Correction due to temperature

5. Correction due to pull applied

6. Due to sag

CHAIN SURVEY

Limiting length of offset

Offset method

Error in effect

COMPASS SURVEY

System of angle measurement

1. Most commonly used

2. Centesimal system

3. Hour system

Relation

Meridian

True meridian

Magnetic meridian

Declination

Angle of dip

System of bearing measurement

1. WCB method

2. QSB method

Local attraction

TRANSVERSE SURVEY

Latitude and departure

For a closed traverse

Closing error

Methods for correcting

1. Bowditch method

2. Transit method

3. Graphical method

4. Axis method

LEVELLING

Bench mark

Reduced level

Back sight

Fore sight

Intermediate sight

Height of instruments methods

Rise and fall method

Reciprocal levelling

Adjustments

1. Permanent adjusments

2. Temporary adjustments

Error in the instruments

Error in inclination

Correction due to earth curvature and refraction

1. Horizontal line

2. Level line

3. Correction due to curvature

Correction due to refraction

Combined correction due to curvature and refraction

Sensitivity of a bubble tube

Sensitiveness

CONTOURS

1. Contour intervals

Horizontal equivalents

Properties

AREA AND VOLUME

1. Area

2. Volume

TRIGONOMETRICAL LEVELLING

PLANE TABLE SURVEYING

1. Radiation

2. Intersection

3. Traversing

4. Resection

Methods

1. By compass

2. By back orientation

3. Three point problem

4. Two point problem

Three point problem

1. Tracing paper method

2. Bessel’s graphical method

3. Lehman;s method

TACHEMETER SURVEYING

Principle of tachometer

Staff reading

1. Vertical staff

2. Staff kept normal

Angle of elevation

Angle of depression

CURVE

1. Simple angle

2. Radical offset from the tangent

3. Offset from long chord

Chainage of different points

Setting out of single simple curve

Total deflection angle for different point

1. One theodolite method

2. Two theodolite method

PHOTOGRAMMETRY

Types

Terrestrial

Aerial

Determination of focal length of camera

Horizontal distance between two points

Relief displacement

SURVEYING

Accuracy

Error

Sources of error

Types

Principle of least square

Probable error

Significance

Errors in computed results

Deduction

ASTRONOMY

East and west point

Movement of earth around sun

Co-ordinate system

Angles

Spherical triangle

Napier rule

Time

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