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Surveying Full Scanned Lecture Notes - Aarthi Edition
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Surveying Full Hand Written Lecture Notes from Reputed Institutions and Faculties. Useful for Civil Engineers , Specially for Candidates Appearing for GATE Exams , IES Exams and PSUS Exams.

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Content :
Introduction 


Types of surveying
1. Geodetic survey
2. Plane survey

Principle of surveying
Scale
Types of scale
Plane scale

Verniear scale
1. Direct verniear
2. Indirect verniear

Least count
Shrunk scale
Ground length
Shrunk scale
Shrinkage factor

TAPE CORRECTION
1. Correction due to standardization
2. Correction due to slope
3. Correction due to alignment
4. Correction due to temperature
5. Correction due to pull applied
6. Due to sag

CHAIN SURVEY
Limiting length of offset
Offset method
Error in effect
COMPASS SURVEY

System of angle measurement
1. Most commonly used
2. Centesimal system
3. Hour system

Relation
Meridian
True meridian
Magnetic meridian
Declination
Angle of dip

System of bearing measurement
1. WCB method
2. QSB method

Local attraction
TRANSVERSE SURVEY
Latitude and departure
For a closed traverse
Closing error

Methods for correcting
1. Bowditch method
2. Transit method
3. Graphical method
4. Axis method

LEVELLING
Bench mark
Reduced level
Back sight
Fore sight
Intermediate sight
Height of instruments methods
Rise and fall method
Reciprocal levelling

Adjustments
1. Permanent adjusments
2. Temporary adjustments

Error in the instruments
Error in inclination

Correction due to earth curvature and refraction
1. Horizontal line
2. Level line
3. Correction due to curvature

Correction due to refraction
Combined correction due to curvature and refraction
Sensitivity of a bubble tube
Sensitiveness

CONTOURS
1. Contour intervals

Horizontal equivalents
Properties

AREA AND VOLUME
1. Area
2. Volume

TRIGONOMETRICAL LEVELLING

PLANE TABLE SURVEYING
1. Radiation
2. Intersection
3. Traversing
4. Resection 

Methods
1. By compass
2. By back orientation
3. Three point problem
4. Two point problem

Three point problem
1. Tracing paper method
2. Bessel’s graphical method
3. Lehman;s method

TACHEMETER SURVEYING
Principle of tachometer

Staff reading
1. Vertical staff
2. Staff kept normal

Angle of elevation
Angle of depression

CURVE
1. Simple angle
2. Radical offset from the tangent
3. Offset from long chord

Chainage of different points
Setting out of single simple curve

Total deflection angle for different point
1. One theodolite method
2. Two theodolite method

PHOTOGRAMMETRY
Types
Terrestrial
Aerial
Determination of focal length of camera
Horizontal distance between two points 
Relief displacement
SURVEYING
Accuracy 
Error
Sources of error
Types
Principle of least square
Probable error
Significance
Errors in computed results
Deduction
ASTRONOMY
East and west point
Movement of earth around sun
Co-ordinate system
Angles
Spherical triangle
Napier rule
Time

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