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Environmental Science and Engg (GE2021) 3 Units Scanned Lecture Notes - Niranjan
#1


   
Anna University , Chennai
Common to all Department
Fifth Semester
GE2021 Environmental Science and Engineering
Units 1 , 2 and 3
Handwritten Scanned Lecture Notes - Niranjan Kumar Edition
(Regulation 2008) 

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Content :
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

UNIT-1

ENVIRONMENTAL ECO SYSTEM AND BIO DIVERSITY
Scope
1. Environmental studies
2. Environmental science
3. Environmental engineering
ECO SYSTEM
Types of eco system
1. Terrestrial ecosystem
2. Aquatic ecosystem
Terrestrial ecosystem
1. Forest ecosystem
2. Grassland ecosystem
3. Desert ecosystem
4. Artificial ecosystem
Aquatic ecosystem
Structure and function of an ecosystem
1. Abiotic components
2. Biotic components
Classification of biotic components
1. Producers
2. Consumers
Primary consumers
Secondary consumers
Tertiary consumers
3. Decomposer
Function of the ecosystem
1. Food chain
2. Photosynthesis
3. Food chain
Energy flow in the ecosystem
First law of thermodynamics
Second law of thermodynamics
Nitrogen cycle
Natural fixation
Nitrification
Denitrification
Ecological succession process
Community
1. Pioneer community
2. Sere
3. Climax community
Characteristics of ecological successions
Primary succession
Secondary succession
Process of succession
1. Facilitation
2. Inhibition
3. Tolerance
Forest ecosystem
Classification
1. Tropical rain forest
2. Tropical deciduous forest
3. Tropical scrub forest
4. Temperature rain forest
5. Temperature deciduous forest
Features of forest
Characteristics of forest ecosystem
Structure and function of forest ecosystem
1. Abiotic components
2. Biotic components
a. Producers
b. Consumers
i. Primary consumers
ii. Secondary consumers
iii. Tertiary consumers
3. Decomposers
GRASS LAND ECOSYSTEM
Introduction
Structures and function of the grass land ecosystem
1. Abiotic components
2. Biotic components
DESERT ECOSYSTEM
Introduction
Characteristics of desert ecosystem
POND ECOSYSTEM
Introduction
Stream and river ecosystem
Ocean ecosystem
Characteristic features of ocean ecosystem
Structure and function of ocean ecosystem
Producers
Phytoplankton
Consumers
Decomposers
ESTUARINE ECOSYSTEM
Bio diversity
Significance of bio diversity
Levels of bio diversity
Genetic diversity
Species diversity
Ecosystem diversity
Value of bio diversity
1. Direct values
2. Social values
3. Ethical values
4. Aesthetic values
5. Option values
BIODIVERSITY AT NATIONAL LEVEL
Treats to bio-diversity
Factors
1. Fragmentation
2. Production of drungs
3. Deforestation
4. Destruction of wet lands
5. Illegal trades
6. Development activities
Poaching of wild life
1. Commercial poaching
2. Subsistence poaching
Man-wild life conflicts
Conservation of bio-diversity
Conservation of wild life
Conservation of forest
IN-SITU conservation

UNIT-2

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
Classification of pollution
AIR POLLUTION
Composition of the atmosphere
Sources of air pollution
1. Natural sources
2. Man made activities
Classification of air pollution
1. Primary pollutants
2. Secondary pollutants
Common air pollutants sources
1. Carbon monoxide
2. Nitrogen dioxide
3. Sulphur dioxide
4. Suspended patiiculate matter
5. Ozone
6. Hydrocarbons
Control measure of air pollution
Chemical and photo chemical reaction in the atmosphere
1. Formation of smog
2. Types of smog
3. London smog
4. Los angle smog
5. Health and environment effects of smog
Remedial measure of smog
ACID RAIN
Effects of acid rain
Acid rain on building
Control measure of acid rain
Oxygen and ozone chemistry
Production of oxygen
1. Photochemical dissociation
2. Photosynthesis
3. Industrial production
Ozone chemistry
Production of ozone
Importance of ozone layer
Effects of ozone layer depletion
Measurements of ozone
Properties of terrestrial and marine water
Types
1. Standing water bodies
2. Flowing water bodies
Water quality parameters
Physical parameters
Chemical parameters
WATER POLLUTION
Sources of water pollution
Testing of river water
Biochemical oxygen demand
Chemical oxygen demand
Control measure of water pollution
Treatment process
Preliminary treatment
Primary treatment
Absorption of heavy metals
Sources of heavy metals in the environments
Removal of heavy metals by absorption
Advantages
Disadvantages
Ion exchange
1. Cation exchanger
2. Anion exchanger
Soil pollution
Sources
1. Industrial wastes
2. Urban wastes
3. Agricultural waste
4. Radioactive waste
5. Biological waste
Control measures of soil pollution
Soil waste managements
Types 
Sources of urban waste
Effects of solids waste
Process of solid waste
Composting
Marine pollution
Coral reefs
Control measure of marine pollution
Noise pollution
Sources and types of noise
Industrial noise
Transport noise
Effects of noise pollution
Control measures
Thermal pollution
Sources
Effects of thermal pollution
Nuclear hazards

UNIT-3

NATURAL RESOURECES
Types
Renewable resources
1. Continuous
2. Extrinsic
Non-renewable resources
Forest resources
Types
1. Evergreen forest
2. Deciduous forest
3. Coniferous forest
Function of forest
Benefits of forest
Ecological uses
Over exploitation of forest
Causes 
Effects
DEFORESTATION
Impact of deforestation
Prevention measure for forest
TIMBER EXTRACTION
Uses of timber
Effects of timber extraction
MINING
Types
1. Surface mining
2. Underground mining
Dams and their effects on forest and tribal people
Effects of DAM on forest
Water resources
Hydrological cycle
Evaporation
1. Transpiration and respiration
2. Condensation and precipitation
Benefits
Problems
Minerals resources
Formation of mineral deposites
Various biological process
Classification
Uses of minerals
Effects of minerals resources
Food resources
Types of food supply
1. Croplands
2. Rangelands
3. Oceans
Major food sources
World food problems
Under nutrition and malnutrition
Changes caused by overgrazing and agriculture
Effects
Agriculture
Types of agriculture
1. Traditional
2. Modern
effects

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