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EI2311 Biomedical Instrumentation Scanned Lecture Notes (All Units) - Lavanya Edition
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Biomedical Instrumentation (All Units) Handwritten Premium Lecture Notes, Prepared by Lavanya. Specially for Engineering Candidates. Syllabus Covered based on Anna University B.E Electrical and Electronics Engineering Seventh Semester.


Syllabus :
BIOMEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION

UNIT-1 (pages: 23) : PHYSIOLOGY AND TRANSDUCERS
UNIT-2 (pages: 17) : ELECTRO PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS
UNIT-3 (pages: 14) : NON ELECTRICAL PARAMETER MEASUREMENTS
UNIT-4 (pages: 11) : MEDICAL IMAGING
UNIT-5 (pages: 21) : ASSISTING AND THERAPEUTIC EQUIPMENTS


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Content :
UNIT-1

PHYSIOLOGY AND TRANSDUCERS
Cell and its structure
Water
Electrolyte
Protein
Liquids
Carbohydrates
Transport of ion through the cell membrane
Resting and action potential
Characteristics of resting potential
Polarization
Action potential
Nervous system
Different types of human body
1. Skeletal system
2. Circulatory system
3. Respiratory system
4. Digestive system
5. Excretory system
6. Regulatory system
7. Reproductive system
8. Muscular system
Cardiovascular system
Basic components of biomedical system
Transducers
Classification
1. Magnetic induction type transducers
2. Piezo electric type transducers
3. Photovoltaic type transducers
4. Thermo electric type transducers
Ultrasonic transducers
Types
1. Magneto strictive
2. Piezo electric ultrasonic transducers
Temperature measurement
Fibre optic temperature sensors
Fibre optic sensors
Types of optical fibre sensor
1. Photometric
2. Physical
3. Chemical

UNIT-2

ELECTRO PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENTS
Electrodes
Ionic potential
Half cell or electrode potential
Types of electrodes
1. Micro electrode
2. Depth and needle electrode
3. Surface electrode
Amplifier
ECG
Types of amplifier
1. Inverting
2. Non inverting
3. Differential amplifier
4. Isolation amplifier
5. Chopper amplifier
ECG waveform
ECG lead configuration
Bipolar limb lead standard lead
Augmental unipolar limb lead
Unipolar cheast lead
ECG recordings setup method
EEG
EMG
Recording setup
Latency
ERG
Electrical safety in medical environment
1. macro shock
2. Micro shock

UNIT-3

NON ELECTRICAL PARAMETER MEASUREMENTS
Measurement of blood pressure
Blood flow meter
Types of flow meter
1. Electromagnetic
2. Ultrasonic blood flow meter
3. Laser based Doppler blood flow meter
Fick’s method
Indicator dilution method
Types
1. Open circulation method
2. Closed circulation method
Heart rate and heart sound
Lung volume capacities
Spiro meter
Photo plethysmography
Blood pressure measurements
Blood gas analysis
PH measurements
BSR and GSR measurements

UNIT-4

MEDICAL IMAGING
Radio graphic and fluoroscopic technology
Properties of electromagnetic waves
X- ray radiation
Block diagram of an X – ray machine
Application of  X- ray
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
Ultrasonar imaging system
Application
Display
Block diagram of ultra sonic
Thermography
Biotelemetry system
Radiotelemetry system
1. Single channel telemetry system
2. Multi channel telemetry system
Requirement of patient monitoring system
Process involves biometric

UNIT-5

ASSISTING AND THERAPEUTIC EQUIPMENTS
Pacemakers
Types
1. Internal pacemaker
2. External pacemaker
Based on mode of operation
Demand pacemaker
Components of pacemaker
Specification of pacemaker
Methods of simulation pacemaker
Difference between internal and external pacemaker
Pacemaker batteries
Bio mechanical power generation
Defibrillators
Types
1. AC defibrillators
2. DC defibrillators
3. Dual peak DC defibrillators
Ventilators
Methods of artificial respiration
1. Mechanical
2. Non mechanical
Ventilators classification
Nerve and muscular simulators
Types of simulators
Lithotripry
Plasma explosion method
Electromagnetic system or electro dynamic method

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